Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Arthur Miller, The Crucible- Explain how tension is...

In The Crucible there is a lot of tension that builds gradually throughout the play. Tension is a very important factor in The Crucible and Arthur Miller uses a lot of different techniques to create and illustrate it. The tension repeatedly rises, and then falls. This could be displayed in a graph. The graph would start with small peaks, and as the tension escalates the peaks would gradually become higher. Note every peak would be higher than the previous to show a gradual build of tension throughout the whole play. I am going to focus mainly on the end of act one, and the start of act two. I will explore the two scenes in great detail, and compare how the tension is similar and how it is different. The first thing that is striking to†¦show more content†¦The crescendo of voices causes mass hysteria on the stage. Also the repetition of I saw with the devil dominates the stage by creating on extremely tense atmosphere. This crescendo of voices increases the mass hysteria. This contrasts enormously with the beginning of Act 2. There is no dialogue at the beginning of the scene, and the only sound heard after the mass hysteria, is Elizabeth singing a peaceful lullaby to her children. The room instead of being full of people, is actually completely empty. The juxtaposition between the two scenes would affect the audience enormously and add a sense of anticipation and involvement. The first thing that happens in this scene is when John Proctor enters the room. He looks around and notices a pot of stew simmering over the fireplace, he tastes the stew but however he is not quite pleased with the taste. He Takes a pinch of salt, and drops it into the pot. He does this secretly as not to upset Elizabeth. This shows the secretive element to their relationship as well as his underlying consideration for her feelings. As Elizabeth enters she does not embrace Proctor nor does she greet him with any physical contact; metaphorically this implies distance. She just asks:What keeps you so late?The first dialogue spoken is a question. She obviously doesnt trust him and in the back of her mind she imagines he has been with his mistress, Abigail. He answers her questions in very little detail. HisShow MoreRelatedHow Does Arthur Miller Create Drama and Tension in Act 1 of ‘the Crucible’?1661 Words   |  7 PagesHow does Arthur Miller create drama and tension in Act 1 of ‘The Crucible’? The Crucible is a play, which explores the witch- hunting hysteria that happened in Salem 1692. Miller uses this â€Å"organized mass-hysteria†[1] to comment on his own similar experience during the 1950s. Through â€Å"The Crucible†, Miller is able to draw an analogy between the hysteria of the Salem witch-trails and its modern parallel of the anti communist ‘witch-hunts’ which occurred due to the HUAC-House of un-American CommitteeRead MoreThe Cold War And The Cuban Missile Crisis2976 Words   |  12 PagesActivities Committee each year. In 1956, the House Un-American Activities Committee convicted one man (of many) for being ‘communist’. That man’s name was Arthur Miller: acclaimed playwright and author. It would be an understatement to say that Miller did not take the false accusation lightly in any manner whatsoever. The Crucible, written by Arthur Miller, is a riveting four-act play describing a witchcraft hysteria spreading throughout the small town of Salem, Massachusetts and the specific role eachRead MoreAn Age Of Mass Hysteria1623 Words   |  7 Pagesfalsely accused of witchcraft from 1692 to 1693 in Salem, Massachusetts and 20 of those people were executed. Arthur Miller’s The Crucible follows a group of people in Salem and their struggle to find an answer that explains the tragedies of life through religion. Their faith plays such an influential role in their life that they use it to explain things that modern science would explain. They believe that the bad things that happen are due to the devil who is aided by witches. As the people of SalemRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller983 Words   |  4 PagesReputation in The Crucible In the play The Crucible by Arthur Miller, one of the many themes that stands out to most people is the importance of a having a good name and reputation. Miller uses certain characters outcomes in the play to prove that reputation was actually not the biggest concern. He consistently shows that reputation means nothing when it came to being accused during the Salem Witch Trials because many innocent people were killed. People began to use these accusations for theirRead MoreTheme Of Betrayal In The Crucible1436 Words   |  6 PagesArthur Miller wrote The Crucible, which is about the witchcraft that begins in the home of Reverend Parris. His daughter Betty, who is obviously affected by witchcraft after he had found Betty and her friends performing witchcraft with Tituba. Long after the teenage girls were caught, they came up with a scheme to keep themselves out of trouble. Along this journey the girls’ false stories ended up hurting the people they loved. In this story, Aut hor Miller shows the theme is about good vs evil, survivalRead MoreThe Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx Essay2047 Words   |  9 PagesSince the inception of communism in the early 1840’s, the idea has created turmoil and instilled fear in both the western world and eastern world alike. This philosophy, created by Karl Marx in his novel The Communist Manifesto has started wars, created a massive decline in productivity and destroyed the liberty of many deserving citizens. Leaders of communism, including Hugo Chavez and Joseph Stalin, have perfected the art of exploitation of the mind through mob mentality, or the human tendencyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Crucible Essay1890 Words   |  8 PagesMy time travel experience to the 1600’s started in Paul Green Theatre as I sat down to watch The Crucible. I was joined by Reverend Samuel Parris, Betty Parris, and audience members taking up all four corners of the Parris’ upper bedroom in 15th century Salem on the cent er stage during Act 1. The Parris’ house filled up quickly as we saw Betty Parris bed-ridden and dealing with an illness deemed as the devil’s work by members of the Salem community. The hysteria of witchcraft spread immediately throughoutRead More Arthur Millers The Crucible Essay3348 Words   |  14 PagesArthur Millers The Crucible The Crucible was written in 1952 by the twentieth century American playwright Arthur Miller (1915-.) Miller was born in New York and educated at the University of Michigan where he began to write plays. Most of Millers plays are set in contemporary America and on the whole offer a realistic portrayal of life and society and the theme of self-realization is re-current e.g. John Proctor in The Crucible. The Crucible was the third play Miller wroteRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller2081 Words   |  9 Pages#1 â€Å"Death of a Salesman† by Arthur Miller is a tragedy, this play has only two acts and does not include scenes in the acts. Instead of cutting from scene to scene, there is a description of how the lighting focuses on a different place or time-period, which from there, they continue on in a different setting. The play doesn’t go in chronological order. A lot of the play is present in Willy’s flashbacks or memories of events. This provides an explanation of why the characters are acting a certainRead More Tragic Hero in The Crucible Essay2240 Words   |  9 PagesTragic Hero in The Crucible What is a tragic hero? The most well known definition of a tragic hero comes from the great philosopher, Aristotle. When depicting a tragic hero, Aristotle states The change in the heros fortunes be not from misery to happiness, but on the contrary, from happiness to misery, and the cause of it must not lie in any wickedness but in some great error on his part.† In addition, he explains the four essential qualities that a tragic hero should possess, which are

Essay on Cosmetic Surgery - 1370 Words

Cosmetic Surgery Cosmetic surgery has been a growing fascination for many people over the last couple of decades. The public eye has been watching movie stars and rock stars enhance their looks by getting breast implants, nose jobs, lip jobs etc. In Gary Schaefer’s article, â€Å"Emerging From Stigma, Cosmetic Surgery Remaking Face of Japan† from the Edmonton Journal, we hear the story of a nineteen year old woman named Risa Arato. She had a makeover done on the prime time Japanese television show, â€Å"Beauty Colosseum.† People of today are being offered this life altering surgery in a less expensive and more convenient way then ever before. What once was considered â€Å"disrespectful† to parents is now being supported by them. High risks†¦show more content†¦While there is little risk involved to you physically, the question is how it will affect you mentally and I believe ultimately this life altering surgery will change people’s lives in a good way. All though some would disagree, many people are being tormented while growing up for their appearances. They say it is what is on the inner surface or a person’s personality that really matters, yet the childish ridiculing of others does not stop. Risa Arato had to take such verbal abuse from her own â€Å"estranged father.† He told her after not seeing her since she was very young that â€Å"she hadn’t turned out very cute.† This would crush anyone after not seeing their father for years, only to be hurt by him when they do. How can anyone grow up with a healthy self esteem after going through such torture? The nineteen year old decided to take action after going through all of this and this action was made possible by â€Å"Beauty Colosseum.† The television show has helped many people, not only Risa, in ridding of their â€Å"social stigma.† It is, in fact, very shallow to judge people by their looks, yet a lot of people are still doing it. How are people supposed to open up and show their true self if you do not let them because of the way they look? Being stared at and made fun of makes people become defensive and this causes people to become very unhappy. It is these types of insecurities that I think cosmetic surgery can rid people of. â€Å"BeautyShow MoreRelatedCosmetic Plastic Surgery : Cosmetic Surgery994 Words   |  4 PagesOther failures related to cosmetic plastic surgery are often linked to the use of Botox. For instance, e all know or have seen this one person who has received an excess of Botox injections and ended up having unnaturally, protruding cheeks. Although using Botox is nonsurgical, it is still classified as cosmetic plastic surgery because it restrains our muscles from carrying out any movement. Many people believe that since this process does not involve cutting through a patient’s skin, it does entailRead MoreCosmetic Surgery : Surgery And Surgery2299 Words   |  10 PagesSydnee Mangette Cosmetic Surgery Beauty is in the eye of the beholder, but this statement is often ignored today. Beauty is very much valued in our society today, and to become more beautiful, people look to cosmetic surgery. There are two categories of cosmetic surgery: invasive and minimally invasive surgeries. Minimally invasive surgeries, like laser hair removal, are often called surface treatments. These procedures require little time and no cuts or actual surgery procedures are performedRead MoreCosmetic Surgery1251 Words   |  6 PagesThe Negative and Positive Effects of Cosmetic Surgery Are you considering cosmetic surgery? The numbers of individuals electing these surgeries are growing rapidly each year. Much of this rapid growth is because of advances in technology that have made plastic surgery techniques both safer and more affordable, as well as cutting down on recovery time. Cosmetic surgery improves body image and self-esteem and reconstructive surgery fixes irregularities such as hereditary disorders, birthRead MorePlastic Surgery : Cosmetic And Cosmetic Surgery879 Words   |  4 PagesI) Definition Cosmetic and plastic surgery According to the merriam-Webster website, plastic surgery is another common word for Cosmetic Surgery which means, in general, a type of operation to improve parts of the body. The medical term of Plastic Surgery comes from Greek in 1638. Cosmetic is a type of ornamental surgery which helps patients to reform and rebuild part or demonstrative of their body in order to embellish their appearance and be beautiful. The defect for that could be congenitalRead MoreCosmetic Surgery1507 Words   |  7 PagesShould cosmetic surgery be encouraged to the general public? Cosmetic surgery is defined as â€Å"any medical operation which is intended to improve a person’s appearance rather than their health† (Cambridge Dictionary, 2003, p.275). By definition, cosmetic surgery is a common practice used to modify the physical outlook of people, especially for women. This is definitely a luxury, which is not necessary to the public. Starting from the 20th century, however, cosmetic surgery is no longer a luxuryRead MoreCosmetic Surgery : Surgery And Surgery Essay1074 Words   |  5 PagesCosmetic surgery is unlikely to change your life; it just changes your outward appearance to others. Cosmetic surgery can be very successful, but it is not risk-free; even though laser cosmetic surgery poses fewer risks than invasive surgery. After selecting and meeting with physicians for your cosmetic surgery, you will have to pick the one that fits your budget and personality. As people grow older, certain things play a big role in making skin look wrin kly and old that cosmetic surgery cannotRead MoreEthics in Cosmetic Surgery1367 Words   |  6 Pagesaround the world are choosing to have cosmetic surgery. It seems to be an easy fix to problems that people perceive, even if the problems are natural, like breast size. In a sociological study done in the UK, the author found that â€Å"[T]o have breast implants requires a major medical procedure, but they are sold as a fashion accessory and the procedure is framed as a beauty treatment rather than an operation by those who sell it† (Taylor). While many cosmetic surgeries are fairly simple procedures, thereRead MorePlastic Surgery And Cosmetic Surgery1496 Words   |  6 PagesPlastic surgery has become an extremely popular trend throughout the past years of the American culture. There are many reasons why people get plastic surgery, however, our society is the first to judge an individual for getting a procedure done. The controversy regarding plastic surgery is extremely re levant and has received major attention through celebrities, television, and social media. However, many individuals are unaware that there is a difference between both plastic surgery and cosmetic surgeryRead MoreThe Beauty Of Cosmetic Surgery899 Words   |  4 Pagesartificial enhancement. The interest of celebrity is gazing at their body-parts, and it links the relationship between celebrity culture and cosmetic surgery. While there is a desire on being alike to the celebrity can achieve beauty, the demand of cosmetic surgery has increased in the society. As not many people could meet the standard of beauty, cosmetic surgery is the fastest way to obtain a perfect body and is generally accepted by the public nowadays. It allows the commodification of the body. SwamiRead MoreCosmetic Surgery : Plastic Surgery2001 Words   |  9 Pages In most sources about cosmetic surgery, they explain the good or bad about it and also give examples of people that have gone through cosmetic s urgery. For most people that go through cosmetic surgery, it takes around 6 months for the swelling to go down and for most of the scars to heal and begin to go away. The majority of people that have an opinion of cosmetic surgery, think that it’s the worst part of the new society and feels like the people that get the procedure done are weak and are easily

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Violent Society Causes Domestic Violence Essay - 1958 Words

People who are close to one another need to trust each other. We should trust our parents not to hurt us, and to give us what we need to grow. When someone is abused, the trust is broken. Domestic violence is the use of physical force within a home in any form of abuse. Abuse can be a whole range of physical behaviour, slapping, hitting, beating, or using weapons to hurt someone. It includes verbal and emotional abuse, where someone is constantly insulted and made to feel sad and worthless. It can also include rape and sexual abuse. Sexual abuse is when someone forces another to have sexual intercourse or do other sexual things against their will. Another form of abuse is total control where one adult makes all the decisions for another†¦show more content†¦Widespread belief that women were intellectually inferior to men led most societies to limit womens education to learning domestic skills. Well-educated, upper-class men controlled most positions of employment and power in society. Traditionally, female family members existed only in terms of their relationships to men. As daughters, subject to the control and whim of fathers, women represented a means of economic or political gain through marital arrangements. As wives, they became their husbands property, and symbols of power and status. Violence against women served to coerce their acquiescence in this scheme and perpetuate subservience to male relatives. Legally permitted abuse of women continued to exist in many Western cultures until the late nineteenth century. Early Roman societies deemed a wife the property of her husband and therefore subject to his control. According to early Roman law, a man could beat, divorce, or murder his wife for offenses committed by her which belittled his honour or threatened his property rights. Roman society considered enforcement of such rights of control essentially a private matter, and thus failed to subject the husband to either public scrutiny or disapp roval. Both the Old and New Testament attest to the belief in early teachings in the obedience of women. Indeed, Eves creation from the rib of Adam provided an excuse forShow MoreRelated Injury can result from violence1613 Words   |  7 Pages Injury can result form violence Injury Can Result from Violence Injury can result from many different incidents. One specifically important incident resulting in injury is domestic violence. It is approximated statistically that 1.8 million to 3-4 million domestic violence cases occur each year, unfortunately, the number of cases that occur cannot be more accurate due to domestic violence usually occurring in the relative privacy of one’s home. (Kelly, 2003) As disturbing asRead MoreDomestic Violence And Sexual Violence Essay1624 Words   |  7 PagesDomestic violence, also labeled as family violence and intimate-partner violence, is psychological, physical and sexual violence that takes place within home environment. Adults and children can both be victims. Domestic violence is a major human rights issue across the world, and one of New Zealand’s most serious social issues. One in three women in Aotearoa will experience an abusive relationship, with many more coming dangerously close. Reason Domestic violences occurs when the abuser wantingRead MoreFamily Violence And Domestic Violence1405 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Family violence, also known as domestic violence is the disorderly conduct by a person to another person, a family, or a family’s property. It is violence between family members and between people in domestic or intimate relationships. Generally family violence behavior is predicted to be as physical abuse, however there are a wide range of behaviors involved. These behaviors include, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, physical abuse, economical abuse, emotional abuse, social abuse, and spiritualRead MoreEssay about Family Abuse1332 Words   |  6 PagesFamily Abuse ALTHOUGH DOMESTIC VIOLENCE INCLUDES SIBLING ABUSE AND ELDER ABUSE, AND CHILD ABUSE THE FOCUS OF MY ESSAY IS ON SPOUSE ABUSE. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE HAS MANY NAMES; FAMILY VIOLENCE, BATTERING, WIFE BEATING, AND DOMESTIC ABUSE. ALL THESE TERMS REFER TO THE SAME THING, ABUSE BY A MARITAL, COMMON LAW, OR A DATING PARTNER IN AN INTIMATE RELATIONSHIP. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IS NOT LIMITED TO PHYSICAL BEATINGS. IT IS ANY BEHAVIOUR THAT IS INTENDED TO SUBJUGATE AND CONTROL ANOTHER HUMAN BEINGRead More Domestic Violence in Society Essay1058 Words   |  5 Pages The Womens Aid federation defines domestic violence as the physical, psychological, sexual or financial violence that takes place within a family type or an intimate relationship, and forms a pattern of coercive and controlling behaviour. It may involve partners, ex-partners or other relatives. Though the more common view of domestic violence is that it is the behaviour of some disturbed sick individuals. However sociologists have questioned this, saying thatRead MoreDomestic Violence research proposal1573 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract The purpose of this study is to see whether or not domestic violence causes a damaging affect on children. The study will included criminal justice students in College and the age range will be between 18 and 23 years old. The method is qualitative and will be an interview. Introduction Domestic violence can be defines as a pattern of behavior in any relationship that is used to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner. AbuseRead MoreEssay about Violence in the Media813 Words   |  4 Pagesbelieve that violence in the media is to blame for violence in people, but that argument is undermined by the realization that violence existed long before video games and television. In fact, violence has actually been steadily decreasing since these things have been growing in popularity. Critics of violent media seem to long for the â€Å"good old days†; a time before there was violence in the media. These critics fail to acknowledge that those â€Å"good old days† were actually far more violent than todayRead MoreThe Effects Of Rap Music On Social Behavior Essay1693 Words   |  7 PagesIn society today, it is highly noticed that the role of rap music messages and video images of violence causes an increase in negative emotions, thoug hts and behaviors which could lead to violence amongst youth. Rap music has been at the center of concern in regards to the potential harmful effect of violent media on social behavior amongst youth. This potential behavior could be seen in the music video titled â€Å"Kim† by Eminem. In this music video, the storyline, language and sound encourages hostileRead MoreViolence in Sports1840 Words   |  7 PagesLevel 3 PE Violence in Sport and its impact on NZ society Gaby Sansom In my report, I am going to be examining the role that violence plays in New Zealand sport and its impact on the New Zealand society. I will be addressing this topic from a rugby perspective therefore most of my examples will be rugby related. This is because rugby is one of the main sports in New Zealand to the extent that it has become an icon for us. No matter where youRead More Domestic Violence in Canada1662 Words   |  7 PagesViolence has become prevalent within society; it is something the western world has learned to accept. With every minute that passes Canadians come face to face with certain acts of violence they may not have previously encountered (citation). Although, violence is not a subject that one can escape, women and children have unfortunately become the prime victims of violent acts. The media glorifies violence in other countries around the world it fails to address the presence of violence within Canada

Analysis Of The Battle Of Borodino - 1014 Words

This paper will analyze the Battle of Borodino. Within this analysis, I will examine weather Tolstoy’s treatment of Napoleon’s statements, to include whether or not Tolstoy accurately describes the battle and if he expresses the horror of battle to which Napoleon alluded. Additionally, I will analyze whether or not the passage supports Napoleon’s assessment of the French as victors and the Russians as invincible. Last I will analyze Tolstoy’s view of warfare was. This paper will give a basic understanding of the Battle of Borodino. To begin is to understand why Napoleon wanted this war and how the events in this conflict took place. Napoleon, is a well know person from history and stories of hi adventures are taught in most history classes. The text says â€Å"Napoleon began the war with Russia because he could not resist going to Dresden, could not help having his head turned by the homage he received, could not help donning a Polish uniform and yielding to the stimulating influence of a June morning, and could not refrain from bursts of anger in the presence of Kurakin and then of Balashev.† Tolstoy, L. (1869). Napoleon was a very proud and prideful person who wanted to be seen among the public. He liked the attention that he received when entering these conflicts and being in the lime light. He also believed that he could win any conflict that he entered and put this thinking above the lives of the men that would be doing the fighting. â€Å"The French, with the memory of all

Role of Choice in Macbeth for Banquo - myassignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about theRole of Choice in Macbeth for Banquo. Answer: In every individuals life their own choices make great impact and lead them either to success or to ruin. In Shakespeares Macbeth, the protagonist faces his tragic consequences due to his poor choices merged with his illegitimate ambition. Not only Macbeth, the poor decisions had negative affects in all the characters of the tragedy. Throughout the drama, Macbeths wrong decisions and poor choices led him to tragic downfall. From the very beginning, the premonitions of the witches had engulfed him and guided him to self-destruction. The witches predicted for Macbeth as well as Banquo but their vision of future influenced the emotion of Macbeth more intensely than that of Banquo. Their premonitions coupled with Macbeths ambition drove him irresistible to secure the throne. With notable influence from Lady Macbeth, he attempted to fulfill his desire to gain more power, fame, wealth and honor. This made Macbeth to end up with murdering King Duncan and chooses the path of violence and des truction. After becoming the king he feels insecure and suspicious. He is instigated by his dangerous quality and eliminates the threat that he suspected to come from Banquos side. The weird sisters premonition that Banquos heirs will succeed him induced Macbeth to kill both Banquo and his son. As the audience already knows that he was so insecure and frustrated, he again visited the witches. More prophecies made him more diffident as well as frustrated. The inner realization of guilt and suppressed indignation resulted in hallucination that can be found in dagger scene and banquet scene. To tame his own anxieties he tried to seek help of the prophecies but those instigated him more rather than pacifying him. Macbeth chose the path of blood and violence that ultimately led to his demise. At this point, Macbeth, whether he is a victim of fate or his ambition responsible for his demise may ignite the audience. Some researchers say that Macbeths fate has the upper hand on his destruction because he never schemed to become the King. Macbeth was fully unknown to magic and mystical powers. To these researches, the supernatural forces were the driving force under which Macbeth and Banquo operated. Every choice that Macbeth made, took him to fulfill prophesies. On the other hand, some researchers believe that the choice and ambition controlled Macbeths path. The weird sisters were aware about the manipulation of false illusion that influences people to take certain decisions. Therefore, the witches never prophesied Macbeth to kill Duncan but just said, "all hail, Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter! He might have wait for the fate to act but he chose the wrong path to fulfill the prophecies. It was his own free will that convinced him to quench his ambition. It can be concluded that fate and choice are entwined with each other in this tragedy. Macbeths decisions were based on his blind belief on fate that forced him to make destructive choices. Therefore, choice has the upper hand for his dreadful demise.

Microsoft Dynamics Finance Available to Business

Question: Discuss about the Microsoft Dynamics and understanding the sources of finance available to business? Answer: Understanding the sources of finance available to business Identification of sources of finance available to business Financing is one of the driving forces for each lucrative business enterprise. Most of the business requires capital for funding investors in generation of revenue in the near future. Business does not have instant access to money generation (Aamer 2012). Various funding options makes business owners select types of financing that suits best for their competitors needs. Some of the sources of sources of finance are mentioned below: Bank Loan It is noticed that banks and credit unions believes in offering loans to small and large business enterprise. Companies takes out loan from a bank and sets access to required sum of money but need repayment with certain interest rates for the same (Albrecht, Stice and Stice 2011). Interest fee indulges on the borrowing of banks money and pay back the funds on timely manner. Retained Earnings It is important to understand the fact that amount of earnings with the business relates directly on amount of dividends in an overall manner. Reinvested profits in case of retained earnings relates with paid dividend in Business Corporation (Balla 2012). Retained earnings helps in financing new investments and payment of higher dividends especially for new equity investments in the most appropriate way. Ordinary or equity shares Ordinary shares are the real owners of the business enterprise. It includes face values quoted for share of the company and bears no direct relationship with nominal value for the same. Deferred ordinary shares are one type of ordinary shares that receives entitlement for rising profits and certain amount in an overall manner. They enjoy voting rights in comparison with ordinary shareholders (Bonham 2013). Ordinary shareholders can put their funds in the company either by paying new shares or through retained earnings. Leasing Leasing is mutual agreement between parties including lessor and lessee. It is noticed that lessor owns the particular capital asset. On the other hand, lessee stops usage of capital assets by the lessor (Davies and Crawford 2012). Addition to that, lessee makes the final payment within specified period. Leasing is one form of rental properties. Leased assets include: Plant and machinery Cars and commercial vehicles Office Equipment Owners Investment This source of finance includes the personal money like savings of the business owner for the same. Bank Overdraft It refers to short-term sources of financing for helping continuous cash flow operations. Working capital Working capital is an important source of financing for improving cash flow in an organization. It helps in meeting the day-to-day working expenses of the business organization (Dyckman, Magee and Pfeiffer 2011). It deals with payment to suppliers and seeking earlier payments from respective customers. Hire Purchase Hire purchase taking into loan for purchase of equipment and acquisition of assets in the near future Personal Loans This loan is provided for personal issues and retain with the owner for the same Grants business angels It helps in assisting business for expanding as well as investing in related equipment. It mainly avails by the local as well as central government in an overall manner. Silent Partners These partners are not active like others but contribute equal amount of money in the business activities Commercial loans These loans are granted for building or construction of commercial properties. Debt Factoring In this, organization sells debts to another organization and terms as outstanding terms. Assessing the implications of the different sources From the above discussion, it is easy to understand the sources of finance available for conducting business activities. In this particular section, advantages and disadvantages of each type are explained for bringing clear understanding on best options on sources of finance. It is important to consider the fact that finance types will depend entirely on factors ascertaining the size of business enterprise. Sources of Finance Advantages Disadvantages Bank Loan Interest on business bank loans helps in tax deduction. It includes fixed-rate loans and various loan-servicing payments. Bank loans indulge in high difficulty for obtaining in case of small business enterprise. It fails to record of accomplishment of related collateral like real estate company. Interest rates for bank loan are quite high includes bank funding. Retained Earnings Obtaining retained earnings helps small business in providing efficient financial resources for investing for operations as well as creation of growth. It mainly funds projects like research development, facility construction, expansion and renovation for the same. High Limits for Internal Revenue services for small business corporations. Shares Shares help in giving potential for raising large amounts of capital. It indulges in selling new shares. It mainly requires high cost for raising small amount of money. Shareholder percentage holds for risk loss control in and around the business organization. Leasing It helps in purchasing and leasing for upfront money for business organization. No loss of control for the business enterprise It fails to sale equipment or returns it for longer time. Undertaking of credit check is one of the drawbacks for leasing attributes. From the above analysis, it is easy to gather relevant facts on the available sources of finance and elaborating on the advantages as well as disadvantages for the same. It depends on the ability to repay debt as well as control over the relinquishing financial operations in an overall manner. Evaluation of appropriate sources of finance for business project It is important to appropriate the financial sources for viewing at the current financial performance on matters relating to current financial position and expected future financial position for the same (Edmonds, McNair and Olds 2013). It is necessary for recommending financing method for various factors. This includes: Cost It is noticed that debt finance consider cheaper in comparison with equity financing. It ensures cost advantage for final debt payment matters in an overall manner. Cash Flows It is necessary to consider company in generation of cash in debt finance matters. Equity providers mainly focus on accepting the cash return for short-term capital growth for dividend enhancements in the most appropriate form. Risk Business Corporation faces large number of risk including finance risk and business risk for the same (Elliott and Elliott 2012). Organization should diversify their risk in riskier areas for operating gearing and reduction of financial risk in an overall manner. From the above analysis, it is easy to make understand with the help of real life scenario for an example. The selected organization for sources of finance project is Wesfarmers. They have strong market position as well as financial position for the same. They have the required amount for investing returns and adequate sources of finance in an overall manner. Understanding the implications of finance as a resource within a business Analyze the costs of different sources of finance It is important to consider the fact that financial cost borrowing relates tangibility in terms of interest paid to the shareholders. It implies for alternative uses for money transactions for tax amount for particular business organization. Finance is the life-blood of business organization. Opportunity cost helps in evaluation with the choices preferred in the spending pattern of individuals (Horngren 2013). Business organization has overheads including rent and utility bills for the same. It is noticed that money paid for the borrowing limits ascertain on timely basis in the most appropriate way. It enhances retained profits for limited amount left in investment pattern in and between the alternative options in an overall manner. Corporation tax adds the depreciable amount for attainment of business profits in the near future (Horngren, Harrison and Oliver 2012). Capital allowances helps in implementation of rules, regulations as well as eligible amount charges for the same. For example- Company saving 1000 Euros for spending money in case of facing difficulty in any form. Options available are: Purchasing new car Going for Holiday Importance of financial planning It is essential to consider the fact that financial planning plays an important role in future growth in an overall manner. Business Corporation should manage with the expenditure and various implications for the same. Late payment of salaries to staff members negatively affects the total workforce of business enterprise. Proper financial planning enables maintenance of cash flow management for critical running of Business Corporation (Kemp and Waybright 2013). Business organization should calculate the cash flow for identification of surplus or shortage of finance in the operational activities. This requires checking at the budget expenditure for smooth functioning of the business organization. Organization should be aware of overtrading activities for completion of work for facing the unforeseen events like delays as well as delivery problems for the same (Libby, Libby and Short 2011). Business organization should plan for addressing the cash flow problem for payment of bills in th e near future. It is important to plan each small things pertaining to business enterprise. This gives clear idea as well as understanding over the business projects. It helps in giving proper plan and course of action in consolidated format. Lacks of effective planning fails to address the problems in one go. Effective planning helps an organization attain future goals in smoother terms. Assessing information needs of different decision makers It is easy to understand the fact that organization consists of variety of decision makers for activities pertaining business. CEO as well as senior management team is responsible for handling the strategic matters directly future activities of particular business organization. Finance and sales departmental managers takes decisions on matters relating to customer credit terms, maximization of profits (McKeith and Collins 2013). Managers believe in preparation of budgets on expenditure incurred by the department for attainment of future goals as well as objectives for the same. On critical analysis, senior managers refer to profit and loss account for viewing at the turnover of particular organization. It mainly includes expenditure and the incomes governing towards the business enterprise for the same (Needles and Powers 2012). Balance sheet predicts the financial position and value of assets as well as liabilities within specified time. As far as management accounting is concerned, it includes budgeted cash flow forecast in the most appropriate form. It mainly ensures planned incomes and expenditures broken into departments. It helps in arriving at actual expenses in comparison with expected variances in an overall manner. Impact of finance on the financial statements It is noticed that financial statements predicts the overall health of the business organization. It mainly serves effective method for communicating financial information on business entity like banks as well as investors for the same (Phillips, Libby and Libby 2013). Results of the financial statements affects the following attributes like: Financial statements affect the share price of a company in rendering reliable financial information in an overall manner. It mainly reflects on the ability of the company for gathering relevant financing options in the near future. It helps the potential investors for processing new share issue as well as dividends for the same. It reflects transparent communication with the help of reported financial statements in case of honesty and integrity of particular business enterprise Financial Decisions based on financial information on British Airways Analyzing the budgets and making appropriate decisions From the financial statements of British Airways, it is easy to ascertain the fact that managers analyses the budget. It mainly compares with the planned income as well as expenditure for the same. Budget of British Airways: Budgeted Figures Actual Figures Units Produced 12000 units 10000 units Direct Materials Cost $ 15000 $12000 Direct Labour Costs $12000 $13000 Fixed overhead costs $5000 $4000 Variable overhead costs $4500 $5600 Total Costs $36500 $34600 From the above table, it is reported that British Airways budget 12000 units but only produced 10000 units in operational activities. It is because of less revenue figures and decreases sale figures for the same. It is revealed that there is decrease in the actual production in comparison with budgeted amount for expected costs in an overall manner. It is easy to calculate the percentage variance that actual production is 20% less than the planed one. Calculation of unit costs and making pricing decisions using relevant information It is noticed that products have certain cost of producing the items in business activities. Managers should decide on understanding the concept of costs for ensuring profit-making in the near future. Classification of costs: Fixed cost remains same irrespective of increase or decrease of production like rent. Variable costs increases or decreases depending entirely on the level of production like electricity. Unit cost = Total Fixed costs+ Total variable costs/ Total units produced Linking unit cost and selling price It is noticed that cost calculation depends entirely on selling price decisions taken by an organization (Shim, Siegel and Shim 2012). Most of the business organization adds the profit for determination of selling price of products as well as services for the same. Selling Price = Direct Cost+ Indirect Cost + Profit Margin/ Number of items sold Techniques in identification of breakeven point Breakeven graph monitors the sales revenue, fixed cost as well as total costs. It mainly estimates the contribution for each unit Assessing viability of projects using investment appraisal techniques Business organization should examine the feasibility risks with usage of sensitivity analysis. Quantitative techniques include: Payback Period This technique is one of the easiest ways for calculation of feasibility for a given project. It mainly estimates the initial investment divided by the total cash flow period in an overall manner (Spiceland, Thomas and Herrmann 2011). It helps in estimating the clarity of the project proposal for returning money on timely basis. This particular technique fails to address the total amount of profitability attained in terms of time value of money. Payback period = Initial Investment/ cash Inflow per period Accounting Rate of Return This particular technique results in ascertaining total profit divided by the initial investment of specified project proposal. It is easy to calculate and mainly addresses the profitability aspects of the business organization. It fails to consider the concept on time value of money and variance allowances for unreliable figures (Weetman 2012). It mainly analyses as well as compares projects in terms of accounting income and cash flows for the same. Accounting Rate of Return = Average Accounting Profit/ Initial Investment Qualitative factors include: It mainly address the business objectives based upon the proposed investment in alignment of business organization It ensures undertaking reliable data for forecasting as well as preparation of quantitative analysis for the same It addresses economy aspects and takes into current consideration for business organization It includes environmental factors for positive as well as negative changes affecting the overall organization for the same It includes ethics and image and alignment with attainment of future goals as well as objectives It mainly focus on the qualitative aspect on internal as well as external shareholders It focuses on the customer needs by undertaking investment decisions for the majority of the shareholders in an overall manner. Evaluating financial performance of business Discussion on financial statements British Airways maintains three financial statements for smooth functioning of the business enterprise. This includes: Balance Sheet Profit and Loss Account Cash Flow Statement Management mainly uses the financial statements for managing the organization and discussing the future strategies on long-term basis (Weygandt, Kieso and Kimmel 2012). External shareholders use the information for taking decisions on possible involvement of operational activities in an overall manner. Balance sheet helps in predicting the financial position of British Airways and presentation of assets as well as liabilities for the same on specified date. Profit and loss statement reveals the financial performance of British Airways. It includes expenditure and incomes pertaining to business organization. Cash Flow statements reveal the information on cash from the operations, investing as well as financing activities for the same. Comparing appropriate formats of financial statements for different types of business In accordance with International Accounting Standards, it is essential to follow the format by business organization. Close distinction in financial statements are as follows: Balance sheet It mainly consists of net assets including: Company Company mainly reveals the financial information to the shareholders and owner of business organization. Partnership It includes two partners in case of private companies and sharing of assets and liabilities in equal portions of business organization (Williams 2012). Capital accounts include investment as well as current account reveals shares, salaries as well as interest for the same. Profit and Loss Account Charity It reveals the unrestricted, restricted as well as endowment for quick funds. Local Authority It is mostly funded by the government. It receives funds mainly from the collection of related local taxes (Albrecht, Stice and Stice 2011). Interpretation of financial statements with appropriate ratios and comparison between internal and external Financial ratios help in calculating the profitability, liquidity as well as solvency position of particular business organization. Liquidity ratio helps in predicting the liquidity position of business enterprise. This includes: Current Ratio = Current assets/ Current liabilities Quick ratio = Current assets- stock prepaid expenses/ current liabilities Profitability ratio measures the profitability position of the business in terms of current performance (Aamer 2012). This includes: Gross profit margin Gross Profit/ Net sales*100 Net Profit = Net Profit/ Net Sales* 100 Efficiency ratios indicate the utilization of financial resources by an organization. Stock turnover ratio = Cost of goods sold/ average stock Asset turnover ratio = Total fixed assets+ total current assets Reference List Aamer, M. (2012).Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 R3 financial management. Albrecht, W., Stice, E. and Stice, J. (2011).Financial accounting. Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western. Balla, D. (2012).CLEP financial accounting. Piscataway, NJ.: Research Education Association. Bonham, M. (2013).International GAAP 2013. Chichester, West Sussex, England: Wiley. Davies, T. and Crawford, I. (2012).Financial accounting. Harlow, England: Pearson. Dyckman, T., Magee, R. and Pfeiffer, G. (2011).Financial accounting. [Westmont, Ill.]: Cambridge Business Publishers. Edmonds, T., McNair, F. and Olds, P. (2013).Fundamental financial accounting concepts. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Elliott, B. and Elliott, J. (2012).Financial accounting and reporting. Horngren, C. (2013).Financial accounting. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Australia Group. Horngren, C., Harrison, W. and Oliver, M. (2012).Accounting. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall. Kemp, R. and Waybright, J. (2013).Financial accounting. Boston: Pearson. Libby, R., Libby, P. and Short, D. (2011).Financial accounting. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. McKeith, J. and Collins, B. (2013).Financial accounting and reporting. London: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Needles, B. and Powers, M. (2012).Financial accounting. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Phillips, F., Libby, R. and Libby, P. (2013).Fundamentals of financial accounting. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Scott, W. (2012).Financial accounting theory. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall. Shim, J., Siegel, J. and Shim, J. (2012).Financial accounting. New York: McGraw-Hill. Spiceland, J., Thomas, W. and Herrmann, D. (2011).Financial accounting. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Weetman, P. (2012).Financial accounting. Weygandt, J., Kieso, D. and Kimmel, P. (2012).Financial accounting. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. Williams, J. (2012).Financial accounting. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Meridian By Alice Walker Essays - Meridian, Literature, Alice Walker

Meridian By Alice Walker In this compelling novel by Alice Walker, Meridian, the main character, grows up through the eyes of the reader. The author shows us the emotional, physical, and psychological stages of resistance that Meridian goes through during the height of the civil rights movement. In fact, if one looks at the life of Alice Walker, the author of the novel, similarities undeniably exist between the two women. First let us examine the early signs of resistance in Meridian. One of the first obvious examples of Meridian's individuality is when she rejects religion at a very young age despite her mother's devout Christian beliefs. In school, she is unable to finish a speech because she knows that there is no truth in the words she speaks. "Meridian was trying to explain to her mother that for the first time she really listened to what she was saying, knew she didn't believe it, and was so distracted by this revelation that she could not make the rest of her speech." (Walker, 121) This passage reveals the intellect that overpowers her emotion developing in Meridian. Yet another example is how Meridian is able to be a nonconformist when she gives up family life and motherhood when she has the opportunity to attend college. Her feelings are well explained in this passage. "When she gave him away she did so with a light heart. She did not look back, believing she had saved a small person's life." (Walker, 90-91) Although Meridian feels it will be best for the child as well as for herself, this decision causes great disturbance within her because of her mother's disapproval. The reader sees Meridian enter college after she has made all of these decisions, and she has also volunteered to work for voter registration, a decision that foreshadows further resistance throughout the novel. When Meridian enters college, she does so knowing that she will better herself. One of the first things the reader notes is her determinism to give the wild child a chance in society, and then, after the wild child's tragic and sudden death, give her a proper funeral. After being denied the opportunity by the authorities, the reaction from Meridian and other students was devastating. "The students sang through tears that slipped like melting pellets of sleet down their grieved and angered cheeks: ?We shall overcome...'" (Walker, 48) Meridian becomes actively involved in the civil rights movement, although she must conceal this from the university. She successfully encourages others to join the movement, and they go from door to door trying to convince others to have the courage to vote. After becoming aquainted with Truman Held, Meridian soon falls in love with him. This relationship ends disappointingly for Meridian, but it provides another excellent example of her prowess. She is able to go on despite the loss of her child, her lover, and her friend Anne-Marion, who was intent on convincing Meridian to be willing to "kill for the revolution" (Walker, 27). This is when the reader sees Meridian move into her next stage of life after overcoming severe illness at college. Meridian is alone. Truman has married Lynne, a white woman, Anne-Marion has forsaken her, and Meridian is just beginning to think about her views and beliefs from her perspective. She lives and works in the South, but she is frail and often suffers from paralysis. Although struggling with her own identity, she still acts as a servant and a saint among her people. For example, when black people were not allowed to swim in the public swimming pool, the mayor refused to build them one of their own. After several children drowned in floods while swimming in ditches that served as makeshift pools, the city officials were taught a lesson by Meridian. "It was Meridian who had led them to the mayor's office, bearing in her arms the bloated figure of a five-year-old boy who had been stuck in the sewer for two days before he was raked out with a grappling hook." (Walker, 191) Meridian also acts as a mediator, ironically, between Truman and his wife Lynne. She remains friends with both of them despite the pain that they once caused her. Throughout the novel, Meridian provides the reader with examples of her resistance to racial suppression and segregation and prejudice. Alice Walker, like her character Meridian, suffered many hardships in her life. One can see the similarities in the real person and the fictional character. Her mother suffered from numerous strokes, her partner cheated on her and